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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) This is not a disease but is a collection of signs that demonstrate a more severe problem or disruption of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Common causes of this set of symptoms include: Brain to gut signal problems, which essentially mean that the brain is not properly transmitting signals to the small and large intestines. Mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO), which is the result of too many bacteria, inhabits the intestine. How Do Pediatric Gastroenterologists Treat These Conditions. The treatment of recurrent vomiting and diarrhea are dependent on the cause of these symptoms. Sitemap Privacy Notice Financial Assistance Disclaimer Donate Careers Contact 777 Hemlock Street, Macon, GA 31201 478.

Search Bing for all related images advertisement FPnotebook. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6986 interlinked topic pages divided into Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA tree of 31 specialty books and 736 chapters. Content is updated monthly with systematic literature reviews and conferences.

Although access to this website is not restricted, the information found here is intended for use by medical providers. Patients should address specific medical concerns with their physicians. Definitions NauseaUrge to vomit, "sick to Stomach" or "queasy" Vomiting (Emesis)Forcible expulsion of Stomach contents RetchingSpasms of respiratory muscle Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA before Emesis RegurgitationPassive retrograde flow of esophageal contents RuminationChewing and Swallowing of regurgitated food Dry Heaves (non-productive Vomiting)Retching without expulsion of augmentin 875mg gastric contents Projectile VomitingForceful Emesis without preceding Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA with Increased Intracranial Pressure Chronic Nausea and VomitingNausea and Vomiting persisting longer than one month HematemesisSee Upper Gastrointestinal BleedingVomiting of fresh blood (suggests acute or severe Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding) Coffee-ground EmesisSee Upper Gastrointestinal BleedingVomiting of black blood (altered by gastric acid) Stercoraceous Vomiting or Fecal VomitingVomiting of fecal material (due to obstruction) Bilious Bayer rom of bile stained (green) fluid III.

Pathophysiology Nausea usually precedes Vomiting Physiologic Control of VomitingLateral reticular formation in MedullaChemical stimulation via chemoreceptor Trigger Zone Vomiting is of Involuntary mechanismGlottis closesDiaphragm contracted and fixedPylorus closesGastric wall and esophageal orifice relaxesAbdominal muscles contract forcefully Associated physiologic eventsPtyalism (Excessive Salivation)Tachycardia (occurs with nauses)Bradycardia (occurs with Retching)Defecation (may accompany Vomiting) IV.

Causes See Vomiting Causes See Vomiting Causes in Children See Vomiting in Pregnancy (Morning Sickness) See Vomiting in Cancer See Psychogenic Vomiting See Medication Induced Vomiting Most Common CausesAcute GastroenteritisVomiting should be followed by DiarrheaMedication Induced Vomiting V. History See Vomiting History for Clinical Clues Systemic Symptoms and Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA or FatigueWeight loss (red flag) Emesis Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA between food and EmesisEmesis appearanceUndigested food or milk or yellow color (Stomach contents)Hematemesis (Upper GI Bleeding)Bilious Emesis (Small Bowel Obstruction) Gastrointestinal Symptoms or SignsAbdominal Pain before Vomiting (red flag)Signs of Gastrointestinal BleedingHematemesisMelanaHeartburn or indigestionDysphagiaConstipationDiarrheaDiarrhea that follows Vomiting is consistent with GastroenteritisVomiting that follows Diarrhea is consistent with enteritis (or Urinary Tract Infection in gynecology, women)Jaundice Genitourinary SymptomsUrine OutputAt least three times daily in infants and twice daily in children and adultsDysuriaUrgency or frequencyHematuria Neurologic Symptoms and SignsAltered Level of Consciousness (GCS, mental status)Focal neurologic deficitsPapilledema VI.

Examination Observe for DehydrationWeight loss since prior examDecreased skin turgurDry mucus membranes (or not making tears in children)Sinus TachycardiaOrthostatic HypotensionDecreased Capillary Refill Other systemic signs of serious illnessTachypnea (Sepsis, Metabolic Acidosis) Abdominal examinationAbdominal DistentionAbdominal wall HerniaPeritoneal signs (abdominal guarding, Rebound Tenderness)Abdominal Trauma (e.

Bruising)Abdominal tenderness to palpationEpigastric Pain: Gastric Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA upper quadrant pain: CholecystitisRight lower quadrant pain: Appendicitis (esp.

Differential Diagnosis See Vomiting Causes Ptyalism (Excessive Salivation) Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Acid Reflux) Forceful CoughingPost-nasal drainageAsthma, Bronchitis or BronchiolitisPneumonia Undigested Food RegurgitationEsophageal ObstructionEsophageal DiverticulumOverfilled StomachDelayed Gastric Emptying or Gastroparesis VIII. Pfizer france Complete Blood Count Serum Electrolytes (e.

Chem8 or Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA Liver Function Tests Serum Lipase Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Urinalysis Urine Pregnancy Test Consider Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Consider serum drug levels of current medications Consider stool studies for concurrent DiarrheaStool LeukocytesFecal Occult BloodClostridium difficileStool CultureOva and Parasites (and GiardiaAntigen) Consider cardiac evaluationElectrocardiogramSerum Troponin IX.

Imaging (as clinically directed) Abdominal Flat and Upright XRay IndicationsSigns or symptoms of mechanical obstructionSmall Bowel ObstructionGastric outlet obstruction Abdominal CT with oral and IV ContrastDetection of Intestinal Obstruction or abdominal mass Right upper quadrant UltrasoundSuspected CholecystitisPancreatitis Chest Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection)- FDA Detection of abdominal free air Head Imaging jimmie johnson Head or MRI Head)Indicated to evaluation for Intracranial MassConsider in Projectile Vomiting, Vomiting without Nausea, morning Vomiting or neurologic changes X.

Gastroparesis)Double-contrast barium studies are more accurate XI. Management See Vomited Medications Symptomatic control of VomitingSee AntiemeticSee Vomiting Management in ChildrenSee Vomiting in PregnancySee Postoperative Nausea and VomitingSee Vomiting in Cancer Management of Dehydration and Electrolyte lossSee Dehydration Management in ChildrenSee Oral Rehydration Solution XII. Complications Dehydration Electrolyte disturbanceHypokalemiaMetabolic Alkalosis Mallory Weiss Tear Esophageal Rupture Aspiration Pneumonia XIV.

References (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(4): 19-25 (1988) Dorland's Medical Dictionary, Saunders, p. Definition (MSH) Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184) MSH D006396 ICD9 578. Nausea is a side effect of some types of cancer therapy. Definition (NCI) Upper abdominal discomfort associated with an urge to vomit.

Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Definition (CSP) unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit.



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