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Men were recruited from Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA 2005 to June 2007 and baseline assessments carried out at the first clinic visit. The only exclusion criterion was living in an aged care facility. Walking speed was measured at usual pace. The fastest time Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA two trials Meloxicam (Mobic)- Multum used.

Walking speeds were adjusted for height based on the definition of frailty used in the Cardiovascular Health Study. For both the baseline and follow-up visits, the men completed a questionnaire at home before coming to the clinic at Concord Hospital. Men who were not contactable by phone were sent letters every four months, or if unavailable a nominated contact family relationships telephoned.

If men withdrew from the study but agreed to passive follow-up, we ascertained any deaths through the New South Wales registry of births, deaths, and marriages.

Follow-up times varied between men (mean 59. Follow-up began at the baseline assessment and ended on the date of death or the end of the study period. For withdrawals, the end date was the date at which we contacted the death registry. Analysis was done using SAS version 9. We used receiver operating characteristics curve analysis (Sigmaplot program, version 11.

A value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination, whereas a value of 0. We also calculated sensitivity and specificity. This index, a common snap measure of the receiver operating characteristics curve, represents the maximum potential effectiveness of a marker.

We also estimated the walking speed providing a sensitivity of 1. This maximum speed might be used in particular instances where people are attempting to outrun Death and avoid their allotted fate.

The walking speed was also tested as a continuous variable. Of 2815 eligible men contacted, 1511 (53. An additional 194 men living in the study area heard about the study (from friends or the local media) and were recruited before receiving an invitation letter, giving a final sample clindamycin 1705.

As the CHAMP study area has a high proportion of immigrants, only 49. Other main countries of birth were Great Britain (4. The men have been followed for a mean of 59. Walking speed at baseline Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA not available in 77 men, mostly through inability to complete the test. A total of 266 deaths occurred during follow-up. The mean walking speed was 0. Cox regression analysis showed that older men with a walking speed above 0.

Therefore, we predict that this is the likely speed at which the Grim Reaper prefers to ambulate under working conditions. Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA men who walked Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA speeds greater than 0. In addition, no men walking at speeds of 1. This supports our hypothesis that faster speeds are protective against mortality because fast walkers can maintain a safe distance from the Grim Reaper.

Interestingly, the predicted walking speed of Death estimated in the present study is virtually identical to the gait speed (0. To our knowledge this is the first paper to estimate the walking speed of the Grim Reaper, which has clear importance for public health. Strengths of this study include the large representative sample of older men from a variety of cultural backgrounds, enabling the application of our findings to diverse populations.

This study also has several limitations. Therefore we were unable to measure his actual walking speed.

Rather, we used receiver operating characteristics analysis to estimate a likely walking speed on the assumption that this would be the speed that best predicted mortality. Hence we do not believe this limitation to be an important one. The receiver operating characteristics analysis was not adjusted Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA age, which may have resulted in different findings.

Therefore we are unable to Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA whether slow walking speed remains an important predictor of increased mortality risk in those with access to such resources.

Furthermore, as singing when chronic heart failure guidelines down is often considered like a health talisman, studies could test the possibility of using a song (see web extra) as an magical incantation to ward off Death.

This study has important implications for clinical practice and the development of future strategies for health Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA in older people. Our findings add to past research indicating a strong link between walking speed and mortality by suggesting the involvement of the Grim Reaper as an underlying mechanism pharmacokinetics this association.

Past research has suggested the use of walking speed as a tool to identify individuals at higher risk of death who may benefit from preventive interventions. Interventional effects drug abuse are required to assess the applicability of these findings as a motivational tool to improve participation and adherence to health promotional activities.

The application of electronic tools such as BMJ iPad to monitor the walking speed of the Grim Reaper warrants further research. The Grim Reaper, the personification of death, is a well known mythological and literary figureHigh quality scientific research linking the Grim Reaper to mortality is limited, despite extensive anecdotal evidence attesting his important Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA in deathThe Grim Reaper prefers to walk at 0.

FFS, DG, FMB, DGLeC, VN, LW, MJS, DJH, PNS and RGC helped design the study, analyse and interpret the data, and critically revise the article. All authors had full access to the data and take responsibility for its integrity and the accuracy of the analysis.

The funding source had no involvement in the study design, analysis, interpretation, or decision to submit this work. Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.



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